The Good Research Code Handbook

This handbook is for grad students, postdocs and PIs who do a lot of programming as part of their research. It will teach you, in a practical manner, how to organize your code so that it is easy to understand and works reliably.

Most people who write research code are not trained in computer science or software engineering. It can feel like an uphill battle when you have to write code without the right training. Do you ever:

  • Feel like you don’t know what you’re doing

  • Feel like an impostor

  • Write code with lots of bugs

  • Hate your code and don’t want to work on it

  • Have trouble finishing projects

  • Contemplate buying a small organic farm in upstate Vermont and read far too much about goat husbandry

Did I hit a nerve? Yes?! Then you’re in for a treat! This book will help you get from 0 to 1 on good software engineering practices for research projects.

Is my code fast? No. But is it well documented? No. But does it work? Also no.



I’ve tried to write this book in a progressive manner: some content is targeted at complete novices, other to programmers who are farther along on their journey. However, I generally assume that you have some familiarity with the following:

  • Python: this intro is Python-centric. You can write good code for Matlab, R, or Julia, but we won’t cover that here. You don’t need to be a Python expert, but you’ll get the most out of this if you’ve been using Python on a regular basis for at least a month, and if you have some passing familiarity with the python data science ecosystem (numpy, matplotlib, pandas, etc.).

  • Git & Github: a lot of the practices introduced here will require you to change your code, which could cause existing functionality to break. You might even accidentally delete something important! Mastering git and github means you will have a time machine for your code, so you can revert to an earlier state. There’s a great intro to git for beginners from software carpentries.

  • The command line: You will need to run some commands on the command line to implement some of the advice in this book. I’m going to assume that you have some familiarity with running commands from a Unix-style shell (e.g. bash). There’s a great intro to the unix shell from software carpentries. If you’re using Windows, you will still be able to run many tools from the Windows command prompt. Long term, your life will be easier if you install the Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL) which will give you access to a Unix-style shell.

Some of the examples I use are neuroscience-inspired - but neuroscience background is absolutely not a requirement. Appreciation for unicorns unicorns is a big plus.

Why did I make this?

I’m Patrick Mineault Twitter. I did my PhD in computational neuroscience at McGill University, in Montreal. I wrote a lot of not very good code, mostly in Matlab. One time, my code was in a non-working state for an entire month - I would furiously type on the keyboard all day in the hopes it would eventually work, and it didn’t. It made me sad. But I managed to graduate. Then I did a postdoc. More of the same.

Eventually, I decided to properly study CS. I studied data structures, algorithms and software engineering practices, and I got a big-boy job as a software engineer at Google in California. It was then that I learned the error of my ways. I had lost time during my research days because I didn’t know how to organize and write code that didn’t self-destruct out of spite. But this is fixable! With knowledge!

At the invitation of Ella Batty, I gave a workshop for the students in neuroscience at Harvard in January of 2021 on writing good research code. The feedback was overwhelmingly positive, so I decided to expand it into this handbook. I hope you enjoy it!

It me

Citing this handbook


Patrick J Mineault & The Good Research Code Handbook Community (2021). The Good Research Code Handbook. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.5796873

Alternative formats

You can download a PDF version of this book here. You can also take a look at a presentation I gave covering the same materials here. I discuss some of the practices in this book with Brian Okken on the Test & Code podcast. Please contact me if you’d like to see a print edition of this book.

Contact me

I help businesses and labs implement the practices outlined in this book through my consulting firm, xcorr consulting. Please get in touch at to find out how we can work together. I’m also available for speaking engagements and collabs – reach out to the same address for that.

Issues with the handbook can be reported on Github. I’m also active on Twitter.